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FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.
Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country.
The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students.
A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.
A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches.
Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities.
Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".
The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage.
The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report.
The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football,    and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society.
Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament.
Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations. Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash.
On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups.
In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans.
The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility".
At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.
Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised.
FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true.
A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup.
This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov.
Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.
Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day.
Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions.
On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.
The elimination of the United States in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.
Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other competitions of that name, see World Cup disambiguation. For the video game, see FIFA Not a FIFA member.
Bronnitsy , Moscow Oblast Australia: Kazan , Republic of Tatarstan Belgium: Krasnogorsky , Moscow Oblast Brazil: Sochi , Krasnodar Krai Colombia: Verkhneuslonsky , Republic of Tatarstan Costa Rica: Roshchino , Leningrad Oblast  Denmark: Anapa , Krasnodar Krai Egypt: Grozny , Chechen Republic England: Repino , Saint Petersburg  France: Istra , Moscow Oblast Germany: Vatutinki , Moscow  Iceland: Gelendzhik , Krasnodar Krai Iran: Bakovka, Moscow Oblast Japan: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan Mexico: Khimki , Moscow Oblast Morocco: Voronezh , Voronezh Oblast Nigeria: Yessentuki , Stavropol Krai Panama: Saransk , Republic of Mordovia Peru: Sochi, Krasnodar Krai Portugal: Ramenskoye , Moscow Oblast Russia: Khimki, Moscow Oblast Saudi Arabia: Kaluga , Kaluga Oblast Serbia: Svetlogorsk , Kaliningrad Oblast South Korea: Krasnodar , Krasnodar Krai Sweden: Gelendzhik, Krasnodar Krai Switzerland: Togliatti , Samara Oblast Tunisia: Pervomayskoye, Moscow Oblast Uruguay: Bor , Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
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Volgograd Arena , Volgograd. Fisht Olympic Stadium , Sochi. Mark Geiger United States. Kazan Arena , Kazan. Mordovia Arena , Saransk.
Kaliningrad Stadium , Kaliningrad. Antonio Mateu Lahoz Spain. Otkritie Arena , Moscow. Nizhny Novgorod Stadium , Nizhny Novgorod.
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A sea-change in government, such as a shift in control of the legislature from one political party to the other, can affect the lobbying business profoundly.
There are numerous examples of lobbying activity reported by the media. One report chronicled a somewhat unusual alliance of consumer advocates and industry groups to boost funding for the Food and Drug Administration ; the general pattern of lobbying efforts had been to try to reduce the regulatory oversight of such an agency.
In this case, however, lobbying groups wanted the federal watchdog agency to have tougher policing authority to avert expensive problems when oversight was lax; in this case, industry and consumer groups were in harmony, and lobbyists were able to persuade officials that higher FDA budgets were in the public interest.
While national-level lobbyists working in Washington have the highest salaries, many lobbyists operating at the state level can earn substantial salaries.
The table shows the top lobbyists in one state— Maryland —in Top power-brokers such as Gerald Cassidy have made fortunes from lobbying:.
Cassidy's reaction to his own wealth has been complicated. He lives large, riding around town in his chauffeured car, spending thousands on custom-made clothes, investing big money in, for example, the Charlie Palmer Steak restaurant at the foot of Capitol Hill just for the fun of it.
He has fashioned a wine cellar of more than 7, bottles. He loves to go to England and live like a gentleman of the kind his Irish antecedents would have considered an anathema.
The general consensus view is that lobbying generally works overall in achieving sought-after results for clients, particularly since it has become so prevalent with substantial and growing budgets, although there are dissenting views.
There is widespread agreement that a key ingredient in effective lobbying is money. Still, effectiveness can vary depending on the situational context.
One view is that large multiple-issue lobbies tend to be effective in getting results for their clients if they are sophisticated, managed by a legislative director familiar with the art of compromise, and play "political hardball".
Studies of lobbying by academics in previous decades painted a picture of lobbying being an ineffectual activity, although many of these studies were done before lobbying became prevalent in American politics.
What happens often is that varying coalitions find themselves in "diametrical opposition to each other" and that stalemates result.
There is anecdotal evidence from numerous newspaper accounts of different groups battling that lobbying activity usually achieves results.
And sometimes merely keeping the status quo could be seen as a victory. When gridlock led to the supposed supercommittee solution, numerous lobbyists from all parts of the political spectrum worked hard, and a stalemate resulted, but with each side defended their own special interests.
Lobbying is a practical necessity for firms that "live and die" by government decisions, such as large government contractors such as Boeing.
A study done in by Bloomberg News suggested that lobbying was a "sound money-making strategy" for the 20 largest federal contractors.
Lobbying has been the subject of much debate and discussion. There is general consensus that lobbying has been a significant corrupting influence in American politics, although criticism is not universal, and there have been arguments put forward to suggest that the system is working properly.
Generally the image of lobbyists and lobbying in the public sphere is not a positive one, although this is not a universal sentiment.
Lobbyists have been described as a "hired gun" without principles or positions. While there is much disclosure, much of it happens in hard-to-disclose personal meetings, and the resulting secrecy and confidentiality can serve to lower lobbying's status.
Since the s, congresspersons and staffers have been "going downtown"—becoming lobbyists—and the big draw is money.
It found that since , 43 percent of the members of Congress who left government to join private life have registered to lobby. A similar report from the Center for Responsive Politics found former members were in the "influence-peddling business", with officially registered as federal lobbyists, and 85 others who were described as providing "strategic advice" or "public relations" to corporate clients.
Numerous reports chronicle the revolving door phenomenon. And it is not just staffers, but lawmakers as well, including high-profile ones such as congressperson Richard Gephardt.
He represented a "working-class" district in Missouri for many years but after leaving Congress, he became a lobbyist. A similar concern voiced by critics of lobbying is that Washington politics has become dominated by elites, and that it is an "insider's game" excluding regular citizens  and which favors entrenched firms.
In a lot of areas, the stakes are between big companies, and it's hard to argue that one solution is better than another solution with regard to the consumer's interest A related but slightly different criticism is that the problem with lobbying as it exists today is that it creates an "inequity of access to the decision-making process".
His plan [ citation needed ] would deprive lawmakers-turned-lobbyists of privileges such as unfettered access to otherwise "members only" areas such as the House and Senate floors and the House gym.
A concern among many critics is that influence peddling hurts overall decision making, according to this criticism.
Proposals with merit are dropped in favor of proposals backed by political expediency. A group supported by the United States Department of Agriculture proposed healthier lunches as a way to combat childhood obesity by limiting the number of potatoes served, limiting salty foods, and adding more fresh vegetables, but this group was countered by a strong food lobby backed by Coca-Cola , Del Monte , and makers of frozen pizza.
Critics have contended that when lawmakers are drawn into battles to determine issues such as the composition over school lunches or how much an ATM fee should be,  more serious issues such as deficit reduction or global warming or social security are neglected.
Critics suggested that the Congress spent more time discussing per-transaction debit-card fees while neglecting issues seen as more pressing.
In this line of reasoning, critics contend that lobbying, in and of itself, is not the sole problem, but only one aspect of a larger problem with American governance.
Critics point to an interplay of factors: Given these temptations, lobbying came along as a logical response to meet the needs of congresspersons seeking campaign funds and staffers seeking personal enrichment.
In a sense, in competitive politics, the common good gets lost:. A lobbyist can identify a client's needs. But it is hard for a single individual to say what is best for the whole group.
The intent of the Constitution's Framers was to have built-in constitutional protections to protect the common good, but according to these critics, these protections do not seem to be working well:.
The structure of representative government, elected by the people, was to be our system's built-in protection of the whole of us—fairly elected officeholders were to represent their constituent groups, free from any obligations to special interests.
Unfortunately, money has corrupted the system and compromised both the fairness of the electoral process as well as the independence and impartiality of elected officials.
Lawrence Lessig , a professor at Harvard Law School and author of Republic, Lost , suggested that the moneyed persuasive power of special interests has insinuated itself between the people and the lawmakers.
As a result of his concerns, Lessig has called on state governments to summon a Second Constitutional Convention to propose substantive reform.
Our current tax system with all its complexities is in part designed to make it easier for candidates, in particular congressmen, to raise money to get back to congress Law in the United States is generally made by Congress , but as the federal government has expanded during much of the twentieth century, there are a sizeable number of federal agencies, generally under the control of the president.
These agencies write often industry-specific rules and regulations regarding such things as automobile safety and air quality. However, there are indications that lobbyists seek to expand their influence from the halls of Congress deeper into the federal bureaucracy.
President Obama pledged during the election campaign to rein in lobbying. As president in January , he signed two executive orders and three presidential memoranda  to help ensure his administration would be more open, transparent, and accountable.
These documents attempted to bring increased accountability to federal spending and limit the influence of special interests, and included a lobbyist gift ban and a revolving door ban.
But the proposals ran into serious opposition from various groups including the lobbying industry itself. Department of Justice raised constitutional and other objections to the bill.
Chamber of Commerce and National Association of Realtors with letter writing campaigns against the proposed restrictions. Lobbyist Howard Marlowe argued in a "stern letter"  that the restriction on gift-giving to federal employees would create "fear of retribution for political donations":.
Since your announcement to seek the Presidency you have consistently attacked the honorable profession of lobbying Lobbyists play an important role in the legislative process, serving as educators to elected officials.
It is in the best interest to government to have informed individuals who serve as experts in every arena of public policy. Our ability to access and navigate the legislative process and push issues forward through a bureaucratic cluster is a vital service to the nation.
The Draft Order would inhibit one of the most vital tools in the advocate's arsenal by creating fear of retribution for political donations.
Making this kind of disclosure a part of the bidding process tarnishes a competition based on qualifications, adds an unneeded level of bureaucracy, and endangers the protection of free speech afforded to all Americans by the First Amendment of the Constitution Critics suggest that Congress has the power to fix itself, but is reluctant to sacrifice money and power.
One report suggested that those in control had an "unbroken record of finding ways to navigate around reform laws or turn regulatory standards to their own advantage.
There are counterarguments that the system is working as it should, despite being rather messy. According to this line of argument, the Madisonian view of politics—in which factions were supposed to compete with other factions—is working exactly as it should.
Competing factions, or in this case, competing interest groups, square off. Battling happens within the federal government, but instead of by settling arguments by elections, arguments are settled by powerful interest groups fighting each other, often financially.
And sometimes powerful financial interests lose the battle. Lobbying brings valuable information to policymakers, according to another argument in favor of lobbying.
Since lobbyists often become highly knowledgeable about a specific issue by studying it in depth over years, they can bring considerable expertise to help legislators avoid errors as well as grasp the nuances of complex issues.
This information can also help Congress oversee numerous federal agencies which often regulate complex industries and issue highly detailed and specific rulings.
Another argument in support of lobbying is that different interest groups and lobbyists, while trying to build coalitions and win support, often amend or soften or change their positions in this process, and that interest groups and lobbyists regulate each other, in a sense.
But a more general sentiment supporting the lobbying arrangement is that every citizen can be construed as being "represented" by dozens of special interests: Every citizen is a special interest Blacks, consumers, teachers, pro-choicers, gun control advocates, handicapped people, aliens, exporters, and salesmen — are all special interests There is not an American today who is not represented whether he or she knows it or not by at least a dozen special interest groups.
One person's special interest is another person's despotism If powerful groups such as the oil industry succeed in winning a battle in government, consumers who drive gas-powered cars can benefit a bit, according to this view.
Even readers of Wikipedia could be conceived as being a special interest and represented by various lobbies. For example, opponents of the Stop Online Piracy Act believed that the act might restrict sites such as Wikipedia; on January 18, , as a form of protest and as a way to encourage readers and contributors of English Wikipedia to write their congresspersons, the online encyclopedia was " blacked out for a day as part of an effort to lobby the government.
Another view in support of lobbying is that it serves a helpful purpose as helping guard against extremism. Generally, the United States requires systematic disclosure of lobbying, and it may be one of the few countries to have such extensive requirements.
Sometimes defining clearly who is a "lobbyist" and what precisely are lobbying activities can be difficult. According to the Lobbying Disclosure Act, several authorized definitions include:.
Still, distinguishing lobbyists from a strategic adviser can be difficult, since the duties of each can often overlap and are hard to define precisely.
There are numerous regulations governing the practice of lobbying, often ones requiring transparency and disclosure. If lobbyists have two or more contacts with a legislator as a lobbyist, then they must register.
States, in addition, are moving in the direction of greater disclosure and transparency regarding lobbying activities. California has an online database called Cal-Access although there were reports that it has been underfunded.
Laws requiring disclosure have been more prevalent in the twentieth century. In , there was a so-called "sunshine law" requiring lobbyists to disclose what they were doing, on whose behalf, and how much they received in payment.
Lobbying law is a constantly evolving field; the American Bar Association published a book of guidelines in with over pages.
Our profession is at a critical point where we can either embrace the constructive changes and reforms by Congress or we can seek out loopholes and continue the slippery slide into history along side the ranks of snake oil salesmen.
Scandals can spur impetus towards greater regulation as well. The Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal , which started in the s and led to a guilty plea in , inspired the Legislative Transparency and Accountability Act of S.
According to Time Magazine the Senate bill:. In , the th Congress tried to reform Lobbying by passing the Lobbying Disclosure Act of which defines and requires lobbyists who are compensated for their actions to register with congressional officials.
There were subsequent modifications leading to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of Some states have considered banning government employees permanently from lobbying on issues they had worked on.
For example, there was a proposal along these lines to prevent county employees in Maryland from ever lobbying on issues they had worked on.
The proposal insisted that county officials post financial disclosures as well as prohibit gifts from contractors.
Jack Abramoff, emerging from prison, has spoken publicly about lobbying. In his view, regulations designed to rein in the excesses of lobbying have not been effective, and reforms and regulations have not cleaned up the system "at all".
Abramoff said lobbyists could "find a way around just about any reform Congress enacted", and gave an example:.
A similar view suggested that lobbying reform efforts have been "fought tooth and nail to prevent its passage" since the people with the power to reform would curtail their own powers and income flows.
Since commerce worldwide is becoming more integrated, with firms headquartered in one country increasingly doing business in many other countries, it is logical to expect that lobbying efforts will reflect the increasing globalization.
Sometimes foreign-owned corporations will want to lobby the United States government, and in such instances, new rules can apply, since it can be particularly thorny resolving whether national security interests are at stake and how they might be affected.
In , the Foreign Agents Registration Act  required an explicit listing of all political activities undertaken by a lobbyist on behalf of any foreign principal.
A general trend is that the number of lobbyists representing foreign companies is rising. While Congress has tried to quell criticisms against the leverage of domestic lobbying firms by updating domestic lobbying legislation — such as the revision of the Lobbyist Disclosure Act in  —there was a report that its inaction in rectifying loopholes in foreign lobbying regulation has led to scandals.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Direct lobbying in the United States. History of lobbying in the United States.
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